The Kingdom of Kongo (14-19th century CE) was located on the western coast of central Africa in modern-day DR of Congo and Angola. Prospering on the regional trade of copper, ivory, and slaves along the Congo River, the kingdom's wealth was boosted by the arrival of Portuguese traders in the late 15th century CE who expanded even further the slave trade in the region. Kongo kings were converted to Christianity but relations with the Europeans deteriorated as each side attempted to dominate the other. Civil wars and defeats to rival neighbouring kingdoms finally saw the Kongo state collapse in the early 18th century CE. The Portuguese reinstalled the position of the Kongo monarchs, and the state limped on in name only well into the 19th century CE but the kingdom's days as the strongest power in west-central Africa were now but a distant memory.
The level of trade conducted between the forest and grassland peoples of west-central Africa is indicated by the established use of a shell currency, the spiral nzimbu shells which originally came from Luanda, an offshore island located some 240 km away. Initially used as a means of storing wealth and as a standard measure of the value of other goods, the shells came to be used like coins to pay for goods and labour. Not having the region's trade all to itself, rival equatorial African kingdoms included Loango and Tio, both located to the north of Kongo, and the loose confederation of tribes of Ndongo to the south (modern Angola).
An even greater crisis again came from outside the kingdom when, around 1568 CE, a mysterious group of warriors known as the Jaga invaded Kongo from the south (or east) and the disgruntled and overtaxed people of Kongo rose in their support. Although the Kongo royal household managed to escape to an offshore island and then wage something of a fightback after they gained support from the Portuguese, civil wars between rival claimants to the throne continued to ruin the kingdom. In 1665 CE the Kongo suffered a heavy defeat at the hands of their southern neighbours at the Battle of Mbwila. It was a loss that the Kongo kings never recovered from. Civil wars raged on and even Sao Salvador was sacked and abandoned in 1678 CE. By 1710 CE, the Kingdom of Kongo had all but disintegrated as an independent state, even if the title King of Kongo continued to be used. The entire region came under the rule of the different groups of traders who established not states but trading communities and networks of alliances. The Kongo region was eventually absorbed into the Portuguese colony of Angola in the early 20th century CE.
On September 24, gold prices were 30 percent higher than when Grant became president, and Gould and Fisk got their tip-off from Butterfield. They sold their reserves, and then the government gold was put up for sale, causing the price to nosedive from the massive supply increase, ruining thousands of investors in minutes.
Woollen cloth was the chief export and most important employer after agriculture. The golden era of the Wiltshire woollen industry was in the reign of Henry VIII. In the medieval period, raw wool had been exported, but now England had an industry, based on its 11 million sheep. London and towns purchased wool from dealers, and send it to rural households where family labour turned it into cloth. They washed the wool, carded it and spun it into thread, which was then turned into cloth on a loom. Export merchants, known as Merchant Adventurers, exported woollens into the Netherlands and Germany, as well as other lands. The arrival of Huguenots from France brought in new skills that expanded the industry.
While the other major powers were primarily motivated toward territorial gains, and protection of their dynasties (such as the Habsburg and Bourbon dynasties, and Prussia's House of Hohenzollern), Britain had a different set of primary interests. Its main diplomatic goal (besides protecting the homeland from invasion) was building a worldwide trading network for its merchants, manufacturers, shippers and financiers. This required a hegemonic Royal Navy so powerful that no rival could sweep its ships from the world's trading routes, or invade the British Isles. The London government enhanced the private sector by incorporating numerous privately financed London-based companies for establishing trading posts and opening import-export businesses across the world. Each was given a monopoly of trade to the specified geographical region. The first enterprise was the Muscovy Company set up in 1555 to trade with Russia. Other prominent enterprises included the East India Company, and the Hudson's Bay Company in Canada. The Company of Royal Adventurers Trading to Africa had been set up in 1662 to trade in gold, ivory and slaves in Africa; it was reestablished as the Royal African Company in 1672 and focused on the Atlantic slave trade. British involvement in the each of the four major wars, 1740 to 1783, paid off handsomely in terms of trade. Even the loss of the Thirteen Colonies was made up by a very favourable trading relationship with the new United States of America. British gained dominance in the trade with India, and largely dominated the highly lucrative slave, sugar, and commercial trades originating in West Africa and the West Indies. Exports soared from £6.5 million in 1700, to £14.7 million in 1760 and £43.2 million in 1800. Other powers set up similar monopolies on a much smaller scale; only the Netherlands emphasised trade as much as England.
In SMG4: Mario The Scam Artist, not long after being left in the chair, Mario was rescued from the sewer maintenance building by Wario, who decided to make his rival his new scam partner, due to Waluigi's insanity resulting in him being out of touch with him. Despite clearly not wanting to do it, Mario nevertheless agreed. Unfortunately, their scams are frequently ruined due to a combination of several mishaps and Mario's incompetence. Angered, Wario threatened to cuff the plumber back in the chair forever if he screwed up again. Later, they found Luigi floating through the sewer current and calling for help, forcing Mario to kill a nearby fisherman, tie his body with a rod, and make Luigi grab onto the body while he pulled. He succeeded, only for Wario to try to scam Luigi and make him give away 30,000 coins. After Luigi revealed he had no money, the chubby scammer was enraged and attempted to throw Luigi back into the sewer and leave him to die, causing an angered Mario to kick him aside and threaten to fight him, calling him "just as bad as Waluigi". Wario, realizing his actions and the fact that he constantly mistreated Waluigi, whereas Mario would defend Luigi, eventually left out of sadness, allowing the Mario Bros. to go home.
At one point, an onion dump scared Melony. As the rest got rid of them, Axol managed to bring back Melony, and she managed to finish the hack, arriving at a ruined bridge where the USB is. They entered with SMG4 as the passcode, and discovered a library. After some searching, an Internet Explorer slowpoke pointed the way into his origins, which was a central command. With Mario's inclever button mashing, SMG4's memories unfolded.
Flintheart Glomgold is a character created by Carl Barks for the Uncle Scrooge comic series. As Scrooge McDuck's long-standing arch-nemesis and business rival, Glomgold strives to usurp the title of "World's Richest Duck". He will attempt any possible underhanded deed in order to defeat Scrooge, and occasionally hires such thugs such as the Beagle Boys and sometimes also Magica De Spell to do his dirty work.
Like Scrooge, Glomgold also has a love for money and gold, however, unlike him, he is dishonest and often resorts to cheating, or using other unfair tactics to increase his fortune. He also cares for no one other than himself, acting as a loner at some points. While Scrooge has his nephews and friends, helping or advising him, Flintheart often faces situations alone. This hardened him, he became more ruthless than Scrooge, but also leaves him vulnerable to being simply outnumbered by his rivals.
In Ducktales (2017), Glomgold can rather bluntly be described as dumb as dirt, as he constantly does idiotic things to make himself look better and ruin Scrooge. Each time he is defeated and ignores his own idiocy caused him to fail.
Under Carl Barks comics, Glomgold hailed from South Africa. However, when he made his animated debut in the TV series DuckTales (1987-90), the U.S. government had tensions with the Republic of South Africa. Wishing to avoid controversy, as South Africa had been associated with apartheid and not with diamonds at that time, the Disney animators changed Glomgold's domicile from South Africa to Duckburg, and further accentuated his Scottish origins. Another departure from the comics was that Glomgold is also just as notoriously stingy as Scrooge, but even more so, whereas Scrooge will at least be generous with his money on occasion. The animated Glomgold was shown as a big spender. This may have been an amalgamation of another one of Scrooge's rivals, Rockerduck, who did not appear in the show itself. (Rockerduck, would, however, appear in the 2011 DuckTales comic arc "Rightful Owners".) 2b1af7f3a8