The history of preceding the country's independence in 1947 is shared with that of Afghanistan, India, and Iran. Spanning the western expanse of the Indian subcontinent and the eastern borderlands of the Iranian plateau, the region of present-day Pakistan served both as the fertile ground of a major civilization and as the gateway of South Asia to Central Asia and the Near East.
The Kushan Empire expanded out of what is now Afghanistan into the northwest of the subcontinent under the leadership of their first emperor, Kujula Kadphises, about the middle of the 1st century CE. They were descended from an Indo-European, Central Asian people called the Yuezhi, a branch of which was known as the Kushans. By the time of his grandson, Kanishka the Great, the empire spread to encompass much of Afghanistan and the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent at least as far as Saketa and Sarnath near Varanasi (Benares).
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When Pakistan became a country on August 14th, 1947, to form the largest Muslim state in the world at that time. The creation of Pakistan was catalyst to the largest demographic movement in recorded history. Nearly seventeen million people-Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs-are reported to have moved in both directions between India and the two wings of Pakistan (the eastern wing is now Bangladesh). Sixty million of the ninety-five million Muslims on the Indian subcontinent became citizens of Pakistan at the time of its creation. Subsequently, thirty-five million Muslims remained inside India making it the largest Muslim minority in a non-Muslim state.
After Ayub Khan, General Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan headed the second military regime from 1969-1971. By that time the country had been under military rule for thirteen of its twenty-five years of existence. This second military regime emphasized the extent to which the process of centralization under bureaucratic and military tutelage had fragmented Pakistani society and politics. The general elections of 1970 on the basis of adult franchise revealed for the first time ever in Pakistan's history how regionalism and social conflict had come to dominate politics despite the efforts at controlled development. The Awami League, led by Mujibur Rahman, campaigned on a six-point program of provincial autonomy, capturing all but one seat in East Pakistan and securing an absolute majority in the national assembly. In West Pakistan the Pakistan People's Party, led by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, had a populist platform that stole the thunder from the Islamic parties (the Muslim League, the oldest political party captured no more than a few seats) and emerged as the largest single bloc. The prospect of an Awami Leagues government was a threat to politicians in West Pakistan who in conspiracy with the military leadership prevented Mujibur from taking the reins of power. This was the final straw for the east wing who was already fed up with the their under-representation in all sectors of the government, economic deprivation and then the suppression of the democratic process. An armed rebellion in East Pakistan engendered all of these frustrations, which caused Indian military intervention to crush it. Pakistan was now involved in its third war with India, thus clearing the way for the establishment of Bangladesh in 1971.
History of subcontinent MCQs 712 AD to 1857 AD for PPSC, FPSC, SPSC, KPPSC and NTS Tests helps you to get good marks in your tests for Job. History is an important ingredient of all tests .
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Secularism, as conceived in our subcontinent, is a matter of having different religious communities living together in tranquillity and harmony, whereas in Pakistan, especially west Pakistan, from where many minorities choose to move out to India, secularism takes on a different role of being a matter of tranquillity and harmony between different sects of Islam. And yet getting to that point is very hard when the sects are defined in different theological terms and each theology feels that its word is the true interpretation of the word of God.
In 1947, after 200 years of control, the British finally quit the Indian subcontinent. Before leaving, the colonizers drew a line in the sand that formed two new dominions: Muslim-majority Pakistan and Hindu-majority India. Some 15 million people migrated (the largest human migration in history) and one to two million perished in the communal violence that followed.
Y-haplogroup (Y-HG) data were downloaded from public databases at familytreedna.com in October 2013 ( -Haplogroup and ). The latter link provides a useful diagram of R1a subclades, including the major Z93+ branches of Persian, Arabian, and South Asian provenance.
LPKSTR is absent from R1a1 clades other than Z93 clades, which are abundant in the corridor from Transcaucasia to South Asia on both sides of the Persian Gulf (Supplementary File S9). LPKSTR is almost entirely absent from Indian and Arab L657 individuals in the public databases. LPKSTR is found in eastern Transcaucasia and western Afghanistan. Table S7 shows incidence of the LPKSTR type within R1a1 Y-HG individuals for ten communities used in the TMRCA branch-point analysis (Figure 2). In addition, eastern Transcaucasians (Avars, Dargins, and Lezghins) show a high incidence of LPKSTR, unlike Nakh and Western Transcaucasian R1a1 cohorts suggesting provenance to the eastern side of Transcaucasia (Supplementary File S8). Regional communities within Iran are not well represented in this analysis, as their STR profiles are not publicly available. With that caveat, LPKSTR abundance appears to track the distribution of Pool A (Figure 2). Interestingly, the average incidence of LPKSTR among R1a1-HG individuals of the Khatri and Zabuli cohorts closest to the Bolan Pass (36.1%) is four times that of the Pashtun and Gandhara communities (9.1%) that live closer to the Khyber Pass, consistent with a history of LPKSTR migration along the so-called northern Persian trail into the subcontinent.
In the mid-eighth century CE, the heartland of Brahmin orthodoxy was located in the northeast of the subcontinent . Qualitative evidence in support of the thesis that LPK families migrated to Salcete from a western, rather than eastern, proximal origin includes the following. 2b1af7f3a8