Abstract:Scientists have begun using self-replicating rapid prototyper (RepRap) 3-D printers to manufacture open source digital designs of scientific equipment. This approach is refined here to develop a novel instrument capable of performing automated large-area four-point probe measurements. The designs for conversion of a RepRap 3-D printer to a 2-D open source four-point probe (OS4PP) measurement device are detailed for the mechanical and electrical systems. Free and open source software and firmware are developed to operate the tool. The OS4PP was validated against a wide range of discrete resistors and indium tin oxide (ITO) samples of different thicknesses both pre- and post-annealing. The OS4PP was then compared to two commercial proprietary systems. Results of resistors from 10 to 1 MΩ show errors of less than 1% for the OS4PP. The 3-D mapping of sheet resistance of ITO samples successfully demonstrated the automated capability to measure non-uniformities in large-area samples. The results indicate that all measured values are within the same order of magnitude when compared to two proprietary measurement systems. In conclusion, the OS4PP system, which costs less than 70% of manual proprietary systems, is comparable electrically while offering automated 100 micron positional accuracy for measuring sheet resistance over larger areas.Keywords: 3-D platform; four-point probe; conductivity; indium tin oxide; ITO; open source hardware; libre hardware; sheet resistance; transparent conducting oxide; TCOPACS:72.20.-i 72.80.-r
I am still reading the "more information", but is there not a way to crowd-source this? One thought is to go to an open field ( the quietest place in country ) with some test gear, maybe twice a year and sit in the field and produce reports. Everyone send us your device, designed to be turned on. We turn it on, wait 30 secs for initialization and run a spectrum sweep. We then print the results, package it up and send it all back.
A unique solution that teams can leverage to solve these challenges is to use emerging open source software platforms. These platforms are often integrated and tested to remove risk and are designed to work with the microcontroller families upon which they are based.
This article will introduce the concept of open source software and describe how platforms lower risk. It will then show how to get started on an open source platform using the Renesas Flexible Software Package (FSP) on the RA series of microcontrollers.
Open source software is software with source code that anyone can inspect, modify, and enhance1 within the limits that are set by the software licensing model. Open source software has become a critical asset to development teams because it encourages reuse and provides access to software modules that already exist, with little to no cost. For example, it would take a lot of time and budget to write an RTOS from scratch, and quite a bit more time and resource investment to maintain it over several years. Instead, developers can leverage several open source RTOSs. This allows them to focus more on their application code for differentiation, instead of spending time maintaining the underlying OS.
In development cycles where schedules and budgets are constantly being squeezed, open source software provides a mechanism to allow teams to leverage what already exists and focus on their application code. Open source software also has several benefits beyond saving time and money. These benefits include transparency into the code versus a compiled binary, and often there is access to a global community of like-minded developers.
That said, there is some risk associated with open source software so there are several important considerations that developers need to factor into their decision as to whether or not to work with open source software.
First, not all open source software is globally supported. There is a lot of software out there that was built by someone for fun in their basement or garage. They may support the code for a short time and then move on to some other project that is more interesting to them, leaving the users to fend for themselves.
Second, open source software can come with one of several different licensing models. Some licenses allow the software to be used commercially or for any purpose. Other licenses expect any related code or changes to be shared openly with the community. While this may at first seem quite fair, it is also a potential liability risk and may require the company to release their source code.
Finally, quality can be hit and miss when it comes to open source software. The developers often have a specific idea on what it is they want to build and often are building something that is functional. Functionality does not mean that it will be robust, without bugs, or easily integrated into other software packages or code bases. Quality can be a major stumbling block when using open source software, so the user needs to be careful.
To minimize the risk of open source, while maximizing the benefits, developers can leverage software that has already been integrated, tested, and supported by a reputable provider. This is the purpose of the Renesas RA series FSP.
The Renesas RA series is interesting because beyond the hardware, the platform provides open source software in the form of its FSP (Figure 1). The FSP provides all the software required to get the microcontroller up and running, including board support package (BSP), hardware abstraction layer (HAL), and several middleware stacks. The FSP also includes FreeRTOS, an open source RTOS that is popular among developers. The software has also been integrated and tested so that developers can start writing their application code immediately and minimize the time spent worrying about low-level hardware.
Once the project has been created, developers can then use the IDE to develop their application code and use the e2 Studio Stacks Configuration tool to configure integrated drivers, frameworks and open source software within their project.
With embedded system complexity increasing, open source software helps development teams better manage timelines and budgets. However, teams do need to carefully select the open source software they use. There are many unsupported open source software options on the web which can cause unending integration and maintenance issues.
Create custom metrics with OpenCensus describeshow to use OpenCensus, an open sourcemonitoring and tracing library. This library lets you create custom metrics,add metric data to those metrics, and export the metric data toCloud Monitoring.
Robot Framework is an open source test automation framework for acceptance testing and acceptance test-driven development (ATDD). Robot Framework also enables teams to do Selenium testing with a keyword driven approach.
"Electronic enthusiasts may be interested in a new Arduino-based multitool equipped with a full-color screen and touch base control system, designed to simplify and open source the development of electronic devices on Arduino, ESP32, STM32, and more. "
To test a blower motor with a multimeter, first set the multimeter to the "resistance" or "ohms" setting. Then, touch the probes of the multimeter to the terminals on the blower motor. If the resistance reading is infinite, that means there is an open circuit and the blower motor is defective. If the resistance reading is zero, that means there is a short circuit and the blower motor is also defective. Finally, if the resistance reading falls within a certain range (usually between 1 and 20 ohms), then that means the blower motor is functioning properly.
If you don't have a multimeter, you can also test a blower motor by simply connecting it to a power source (like a battery) and seeing if it turns on. If it doesn't turn on, then the blower motor is defective.
Anyone interested in open source appropriate technology and STEAM with a purpose is welcome to attend the STEAM camp. We have no specific age limits, and we focus on mindset of learning. We welcome Women in STEAM, and Dr. Catarina Mota will present a special invitation to women on Day 2 by sharing her own story of learning practical skills.
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A resistance test is performed to determine how much current is lost during its journey through an electrical component. Various parts and components have different strengths, so before you test a part, you need to know how much resistance it should have. Always disconnect any device or component from an energy source before testing for resistance. Like when you measure for continuity, a resistance test involves placing the probes of the multimeter on either side of the component to get a reading.
When using a multimeter, the most important step to remember is to select a voltage or range that will be higher than the expected value of the component you plan to test. Doing this will both ensure an accurate reading, and help to keep tools and equipment safe. Finally, always disconnect any device you plan to test or troubleshoot from its power source before disassembly.
Electrical devices can malfunction or become damaged in a huge number of places, which is why it can sometimes be difficult to find the source of the problem. With tools like a multimeter, you can test the individual components of a device, helping you to pinpoint the issue, test components before use, perform routine testing and repairs, and more. 2b1af7f3a8